Definition of ‘Da’wah’ 
‘Da’wah’ means an invitation. In the
Islamic context it means an invitation to
Islam. Thus Da’wah means conveying the
message of Islam to Non-Muslims and
inviting them to Islam.
Definition of ‘Islaah’
‘Islaah’ means to improve, correct, rectify
or repair. In Islamic terminology, ‘Islaah’
means correcting a Muslim or providing
more knowledge of Islam to a Muslim.
Difference between Islaah and Da’wah:
 Usually people use the word ‘Da’wah’
for the act of conveying the message of
Islam, without differentiating whether the
person being addressed is a Muslim or a
Non-Muslim. Many consider Da’wah and
Islaah to be one and the same activity.
The appropriate word used for inviting a
Non-Muslim to Islam is Da’wah and for
providing correct and additional knowledge
of Islam to a Muslim is Islaah.

Forms of Da’wah:
There are two forms of Da’wah:
(i) live and direct without any media and
(ii) indirect through means of media.
 The media through which Da’wah can be
done is broadly divided into four
i) Print Media 
ii) Audio 
iii) Video 
iv) Electronic Media 
1. Print Media:
 Print Media can be further classified into
non-periodical and periodical:
i) Non-periodical print media consists of
pamphlets, booklets, books, etc.
ii) Periodical print media consists of
newspapers, magazines, newsletters, etc.
which are published periodically
- either daily, weekly, fortnightly,
monthly, quarterly, bi-annually,
annually, etc.
2. Audio: 
The popular audio media today are: 
i) Audio cassettes 
ii) Audio compact discs 
iii) Digital Audio Tapes (DAT). 
The audio media can be used at different
 a) Individual:  
i) A person can listen at fixed places like
home, office, etc. with the help of desktop
audio equipment.
ii) While travelling in cars, buses, trains,
planes, etc. with the help of audio
equipment fixed in the vehicle.
iii) While walking, moving or any of the
above situations with the help of portable
audio equipment.
b) Group: 
Audio media can be used to convey the
message to a group of family members,
social and cultural gatherings, functions,
meetings, etc.
c) Public level: 
Audio media can be utilised to reach a
multitude of people through radio
3. Video: 
The popular video media today are: 
i) Video Cassettes 
ii) Video Compact Discs - VCD 
iii) Digital Video Discs - DVD 
Video media too, like audio media, can be
used to convey the message to an
individual or to a group of people. It can
also be used to convey the message to the
public via Cable T.V. Networks, T.V.
Stations and Satellite T.V. Channels.
4. Electronic Media: 
Electronic Media or Computer Media is
another media that can be used to convey
the message to an individual or a group
of people. It can also be used at a public
level through the Internet by way of
websites, homepages, bulletin boards,
e-mail messages, etc. Electronic Media
can be stored on hard discs and on:
i) Diskettes or floppies 
ii)   Compact Discs: Read Only Memory
iii) Digital Video Discs - DVD 

Effectiveness of Different Media - Impact and Retention of Media:
 1. Retention levels of different media: 
Research has shown that different media
have different percentage of retention of
the message conveyed.
i) Print media - 10% retention: 
An average person when he reads any
material he remembers approximately
10% of what he has read.
ii) Audio - 20% retention: 
An average person when he hears any
message he remembers approximately
20% of what he has heard.
iii) Visual - 30% retention: 
An average person when he sees anything
he retains or remembers approximately
30% of what he has seen.
iv) Video (Audio Visual) - 50 % retention: 
If an average person sees and hears a
particular message he remembers about
50% of what he has seen and heard.
The maximum retention is in the case of
audio-video media since both the senses
of sight and hearing are involved in
grasping the message conveyed.
These first four types of media i.e. the
print media, audio, video and electronic
media, are mainly modes of one-way
communication, i.e. conveying the
message in one direction only without
interaction and clarification from the
person who receives the message. It is
more of a monologue than a dialogue.
A very minute portion of these media can
be converted into an interaction or a
dialogue, for e.g., a question and answer
column in the periodical of the print media
or a live question and answer session via
the telephone on the radio or television
channel or live chatting on the internet.
The major disadvantage is that it is
one-sided, i.e. a monologue, rather than
being both sided, i.e. a dialogue or a
two-way interactive communication.
Requirements of Da’wah: 
Basic knowledge and understanding of
Islam and Comparative Religion is
required for doing Da’wah irrespective
of what the media is. However, to be
effective in Da’wah, specialisation is
required for which different media require
different techniques, strategies and
specialised exposure and training.
While being effective in print media
requires one type of technique, to be
effective through the audio, video and
electronic media requires different
As far as this Da’wah training programme
is concerned, we will not be dealing with
indirect Da’wah done through these four
In this Da’wah training programme, we
will concentrate on live and direct Da’wah
without any media which may incorporate
a few points of audio and video media.
Unlike Da’wah done through media, live
and direct Da’wah is more of a dialogue
than a monologue. It is interactive and
involves two-way communication. Only in
a few instances where a talk or a lecture is
given to an individual or a group of people
without allowing interaction or a question
answer session, it becomes a monologue.
Live Interactive ‘Da’wah’ can further be
classified into:
i) Individual level i.e. Personal one to one
ii) Public level i.e. to groups or to
The techniques and strategies of ‘Da’wah’
on a personal one to one basis besides
depending on the category of person to
whom Da’wah is addressed, differs
depending on the availability of time
Da’wah can be done to strangers as well
as to known people.
1.  Da’wah to strangers e.g. co-passengers
while travelling:
i)   In a local train or bus you may have
10 - 30 minutes.
ii)  In a plane, you may have a few hours. 
iii) In a long distance train or bus journey,
you may have a few hours to a couple of
These categories of people to whom
Da’wah is done while travelling may be
once in a lifetime opportunity for you.
You may never meet the same person
again in your life. In short, it consists of
strangers whom you are not familiar with
or known to
2. Da’wah to known people: 
i)  Friends and acquaintances, whom you
meet once in a while.
ii) Schoolmates, colleagues, co-workers in
offices, businessmen, etc. whom you
meet almost daily and will be in contact
with atleast for a few years.
iii) Neighbours and relatives whom you
meet regularly, and will be in contact with
for several years to come
3. Initiating the process of Da’wah:
Initiating the process of Da’wah is a very
important technique especially while
doing Da’wah on Personal, one to one
a) It can be done by asking simple
questions like:
i)  Why are you wearing a cross? What is
its significance?
(Topic: Was Christ (pbuh) Crucified?) 
ii) Why are you wearing a Teeka,
Vermillon or a Mangalsutra?
(Topic: Status of Women in Hinduism) 
iii) During Christmas season: What is the
significance of Christmas?
(Topic: Is Jesus God? or Can God be born?) 
iv) If stuck in a traffic jam during Ganesh
Chaturthi procession: who is Ganesh?
(Topic: Concept of God in Hinduism) 
v) Since India is a multi-cultural country,
there are several festivals thereby giving
opportunities to initiate Da’wah by asking
simple questions on these festivals
b) Carry an attractive eye-catching booklet
on Islam and Comparative Religion, while
travelling or going to school or office. On
many occasions, people around you may
request you for the book. Whenever a
booklet on Islam is given to Non-Muslims,
it is preferable not to give it away for good.
He may never read it. Ask him in how
much time will he return it giving you an
opportunity to interact with him at the end
of the period or to remind him if he has
not read it. Even if you have to give the
booklet for him to keep, take his telephone
number so that you can clarify any of his
misconceptions on the telephone.
c) Statements or remarks to initiate
Only a few non-Muslims will willingly
give you a hearing if you say that I want to
talk to you about Islam. Instead of you
asking him to give you time, you should
instigate him to ask you to give him time
for conveying the message of Islam.
i) Also helpful and effective are leading
statements such as "without some men
being allowed to marry more than one
woman, all women cannot live with
modesty". The Non-Muslim would not
agree and would ask for a clarification.
Grab the opportunity and say that you can
clarify it if he has 10 minutes to spare.
Since he is asking you a question he will
give you full attention and time to listen to
the answer.
ii) If a Non-Muslim friend or acquaintance
teases a girl, which is a common act in
colleges and universities, ask him a
simple question, "what would you do if
someone teases your sister?"
(Topic: Hijaab in Islam)
d) Instead of saying a thousand good
things about Islam to a Non-Muslim it is
preferable to ask him what he feels is
wrong with Islam. (Topic: Replies to
Most Common Questions asked by
Non-Muslims about Islam).
Da’wah at PUBLIC LEVEL: 
i) Giving talks and lectures on Islam to a
Non-Muslim audience. It is always
preferable to have a question and answer
session after the talk.
ii) Symposia 
iii) Debates 

Selamat Berkenalan

ALLAH Matlamat Utamaku

~ حيّ على الصلاة ~

Jom Solat..



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